A Scale Development for Assessing the Drive for Muscularity Among Pakistani Bodybuilders


  • Umaiza Bashir Department o Clinical Psychology, University of Management and Technology University of Management
  • Sadia Rehman Department o Clinical Psychology, University of Management and Technology




Drive for muscularity, Bodybuilders, Reliability, Validity


Objective: The study was devised to develop the indigenous scale of drive for muscularity among Pakistani bodybuilders

Method: To explore the manifestation of drive for muscularity phenomenological approach was used, in which open ended question was asked from the 35 gym user men from different gyms. A list of the 28 most frequently reported items after initial screening was generated. For empirical validation Through 4 expert coaches of the gym were approached then pilot study was administered. In main study 211 bodybuilders were included for test the psychometric properties of indigenous scale.

Results: On the basis of Eigen value > 1, the 26 items were extracted. Exploratory factor analysis revealed 2 factors of developed scale. The descriptive label was assigned to each factor on the basis of commonality of items termed as “muscle enhancing behaviors” and “thoughts and desires” related muscular body. A significant positive correlation was found between Drive for Muscularity Inventory and Drive for Muscularity Scale. Drive for Muscularity Inventory was also found to be a valid and reliable scale (test-retest reliability =0.82 and split half reliability = 0.87) with acceptable psychometric properties.

Conclusion: Indigenous developed Drive for muscularity scale found to have high internal consistency, construct validity, split-half reliability, and test–retest reliability.