IAA, GAD65 AND IA2 Antibodies In Type 1 Children and Adolescents

  • Dr Yasir Naqi Khan
  • Dr Muhammad Ashfaq
  • Dr Bader-u-Nisa
  • Dr Mehrunnisa Yasir
  • Dr Hira Waseem
  • Muhammad Adnan Kanpurwala KIMS


Objective: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complicated, prolonged metabolic disorder that leads to hyperglycemia and it occurrs due to complete deficiency of insulin with or with insulin resistance. The most common type of DM in children and adolescents is Type-1 DM (T1DM). The aim of this study was to determine the associations of IAA, GAD65 and IA-2A antibodies in type 1 diabetes mellitus with age, gender and duration of disease.

Methodology: This was a retrospective study conducted in the NICH hospital at the department of endocrinology and diabetes by using non probability consecutive sampling technique, after taking ethical approval. The duration of the study was one year. A total of 143 patients with clinically diagnosed type 1 diabetes ( ≥1 year to ≤20 years of age, regardless of the duration of the disease) were selected for the study. All study subjects were investigated for pancreatic autoimmune markers (GAD65, IA-2A, IAAs). Pearson’s Chi square test was applied to evaluate the association.

Results: A total of 143 children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes were enrolled for this study wherein 71(49.7%) were males and 72(50.3%) were females. Regarding the distribution of positivity of autoantibodies, 27(18.9%) had AntiInsulin IgG, 63(44.1%) had GAD65, 47(32.9%) had IA-2A and only 5(3.5%) had grey zone. There was a significant association was reported (p<0.001) in duration of diabetes and with IAA. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant association with  (p=0.003) duration of diabetes and frequency of IA-2A.

Conclusion: This study concluded that presence of autoantibodies such as insulinoma-associated antigen-2 autoantibodies, Insulin autoantibodies and glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 were found to be predominant in males than females although it was not significantly associated with age and gender. Additionally, presence of insulinoma-associated antigen-2 autoantibodies, Insulin autoantibodies significantly associated with the duration of disease.

Author Biographies

Dr Yasir Naqi Khan

Registered Medical Officer NICH, Karachi

Dr Muhammad Ashfaq

Assistant Professor NICH, Karachi

Dr Bader-u-Nisa

Assistant professor NICH, Karachi

Dr Mehrunnisa Yasir

Senior Registrar NICH, Karachi

Dr Hira Waseem

Senior Registrar NICH, Karachi