ANNALS OF ABBASI SHAHEED HOSPITAL AND KARACHI MEDICAL & DENTAL COLLEGE 2023-02-04T07:52:27+00:00 Prof. Dr. Nargis Anjum Open Journal Systems <p style="font-weight: 400;">The scientific journal, Annals of Abbasi Shaheed Hospital and Karachi Medical and Dental College is a quarterly peer-reviewed journal being published for over 20 years, recognized by PMDC, HEC (Y-Category) and cited on Emerging Sources Citation Index (Thomson Reuters), IMEMR, Pakmedinet. The Editor-in-Chief is a member of World Association of Medical Editors (WAME), Eastern Mediterranean Association of Medical Editors (EMAME), and Pakistan Association of Medical Editors (PAME).</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>ARTICLE PROCESSING:</strong></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">The articles can be submitted online via eJManager throughout the year and on an average, it takes maximum one year to print an article. For any queries please email at</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Ordinary Processing:</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;1. Processing Fee: Rs. 2000/-<br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;2.Publication Fee: Rs. 2000/- (per side of PDF)</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Fast Track Publication</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;1. Processing Fee Rs. 3000/-</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;2. Publication Fee Rs. 20,000/-</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">3.Publication Fee of Pictorial Quiz: Rs. 1000/-<br>...(Include processing and Publication Both):</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Subscription per issue:<br>In Pakistan: Rs.1000/-<br>In Karachi: Rs.800/-<br>Bangladesh &amp; India: Rs.1200/-<br>UK: £ 40<br>USA &amp; other Countires: $ 60</p> Integrating Patient Safety Contents in medical school curriculum: A New Challenge 2023-02-04T07:52:04+00:00 Nasreen Siddiqui 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 ANNALS OF ABBASI SHAHEED HOSPITAL AND KARACHI MEDICAL & DENTAL COLLEGE A Prognostic Model for Predicting Liver Cancer Patients Based On Immune Checkpoint Gene-Related Basement Membrane Genes, And Analyzing Immunity and Potential Drug Candidates 2023-02-04T07:51:56+00:00 Yiyang Chen Yiju Gong Xi Ou <p><strong>Abstract:</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. The expression of immune checkpoint genes in tumor cells prevents the immune system from eliminating tumors. Basement membrane-related genes are genes that are closely related to human diseases obtained in the latest research.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>First, basement membrane-related genes were extracted from immune checkpoint genes, and a prognosis model of immune checkpoint-related basement membrane genes was constructed. C-index curves and ROC were drawn by survival analysis, progression-free survival analysis, and independent prognostic analysis. Curves, principal component analysis, and validation of the clinical grouping model were performed to verify its accuracy, enrichment analysis, immune analysis, and tumor mutation burden survival analysis were performed to further explore the potential functions of the model, and finally, potential drugs targeting the model were discussed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A prognostic model for predicting the survival time of liver cancer patients was constructed, and the predictive ability of the model was verified. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis revealed differences in the functions and pathways of differential genes. Four differentially expressed immune functions were found. The top 4 genes mutated in the high and low risk groups were compared. Twenty-five drugs with significant differences in drug sensitivity between high- and low-risk groups were explored.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The risk-prognostic model based on the association of basement membrane genes and immune checkpoint genes in this study may be promising for clinical prediction of prognosis and immunotherapy response in patients with liver cancer.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 ANNALS OF ABBASI SHAHEED HOSPITAL AND KARACHI MEDICAL & DENTAL COLLEGE Cross-Infection Control Practices among Dental Undergraduates and Graduates in Prosthodontics- A Survey in Dental Colleges of Karachi 2023-02-04T07:52:11+00:00 Muneeb Ahmed Lone Bharat Kumar Samina Kanwal Farnaz Ilyas Nadia Sultan Zille-Huma Maham Muneeb Lone <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Objective: </strong>To assess the cross infection control practices among undergraduates and graduates working in the department of Prosthodontics in various public and private dental colleges of Karachi.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Methods: </strong>After approval from IRB, the self-administered questionnaire was sent via emails or social media platforms to undergraduate final year students and graduates currently working in Prosthodontics department of dental colleges of Karachi. Along with demographics, the questionnaire included close ended multiple-choice questions related to participants’ practice regarding cross infection control. A reminder was sent after 2 weeks to help improve response rate. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 23.</p> <p><sup>&nbsp;</sup><strong>Results: </strong>Out of total 617 respondents, there were 410(66.5%) final year dental students and 207(33.5%) house officers. Majority of participants 502(82.3%) had attended lecture regarding cross-infection control measures during their academic years, while only 178(28.8%) had attended hands-on workshops on the same. Majority 530(85.9%) recommended autoclave for sterilization for instruments. Almost all participants 603 (97.7%) wear gloves and perform hand hygiene 527(85.4%). More than two-thirds 416 (67.4%) respondents disinfect impressions, trial wax dentures, bite registrations and metal trials before sending to the dental laboratory. Almost 50% of the participants did not disinfect plastic impression trays, shade guide, rubber bowl, wax knife, carver and spatula in between patients.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Results of this study highlight the need of re-emphasizing cross-infection control measures and practices in the Prosthodontics OPD. Strict administrative protocols should be set to implement cross-infection control practices. Lectures and hands-on workshops regarding cross-infection control, disinfection and sterilization should be a mandatory part of curriculum and be reiterated in continuing dental education seminars.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 ANNALS OF ABBASI SHAHEED HOSPITAL AND KARACHI MEDICAL & DENTAL COLLEGE Management of Condylar Fractures; Comparative Outcomes of Conservative Closed Versus Open Reduction 2023-02-04T07:52:27+00:00 Atiq Rahman Omaima Naeem Aeeza Malik Rohana Rehman Fazal Amin Malik Saleem Shaukat <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To compare the frequency of complications after closed and open reduction management<br>of condylar fractures.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> This is a casual-comparative study conducted in the Out-patient &amp; ward, Department of Oral &amp; Maxillofacial Surgery, Nishter Institute of Dentistry, Multan, over a period of six months. Through nonprobability consecutive sampling, 178 patients were recruited and randomly allotted to two groups,<br>Group 1 for closed reduction and Group 2 for open reduction. A non-rigid mandibular splint was applied<br>for one month in Group 1 whereas, a pre-auricular incision was given and the fracture was reduced and fixed by mini-plates in Group 2. Patients of both groups were given antibiotics intravenously and were followed up clinically for complications such as pain and mandibular deviation after one month by employing “The Visual Analog Scale”. Data were analyzed using SPSS version (21) employing descriptive statistics and Chi-square test.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Mean age was found to be 26.48 ± 4.62 years in Group 1 and 24.85 ± 6.05 years in Group 2. Male to-female ratio, mean weight, height and BMI were almost similar in both groups. The mean duration of fracture was 7.101 ± 2.24 days in Group 1 and 6.898 ± 2.21 days in Group 2. The mandibular deviation was seen in 33.7% and 16.9% of patients (p=0.009) respectively in Groups 1 &amp; 2. The pain was seen in 41.6% of patients in Group 1 and 24.7% in Group 2 (p=0.016).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Considering the complications encountered, patients treated by open reduction gave better<br>clinical results in comparison to close reduction management of condylar fractures.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 ANNALS OF ABBASI SHAHEED HOSPITAL AND KARACHI MEDICAL & DENTAL COLLEGE Role of an Interactive Session in the Improvement of Academic Performance in Pre-Clinical Subjects of the Second Year BDS 2023-02-04T07:51:49+00:00 Atiya Abdul Karim Nazish Fatima Sidra Mohiuddin <p><strong>Objective: </strong>&nbsp;To compare the academic performance of students from two consecutive batches taught through different teaching strategies during their pre-clinical year.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>We compare two batches of the second year BDS in a basic dental science subject (a subject I and Subject II). The mode of intervention of the current batch was via interactive lectures compared with didactic lectures delivered to the previous batch. Both batches were assessed by Continuous Assessments Test CAT in mid of semester followed by the Semester Exam. The two-independent t-test was used to measure the difference in academic scores between two batches of students who received teachings through an interactive session and didactic lectures respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The students of the current batch (n=41) obtained better scores during the continuous assessment test (65.1±11.01) than (55.3±11.80) previous batch students (n=43) at p&lt;0.001. Similarly, semester exam scores of the current batch were also higher (72.0±8.08) than the previous batch (68.3±9.04) in the subject I at p&lt;0.004. However, in Subject II the academic scores were improved but not statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It is concluded as, with the interactive sessions academic performance of the current batch has improved as compared to its counterpart.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-11-30T16:23:10+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 ANNALS OF ABBASI SHAHEED HOSPITAL AND KARACHI MEDICAL & DENTAL COLLEGE Breast Feeding Practices and Knowledge In Semi urban Area Of Pakistan 2023-02-04T07:52:19+00:00 Ammarah Hina Mayda Riaz Tahira Athar Sadia Hina Komal Sehar Muhammad Tahir Majeed <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The objective of this study was to assess the optimal breastfeeding practices and its<br>knowledge in women of semi- urban areas of Pakistan.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out at the Pediatrics outpatient department. The data was collected in three months, from the 9th of March to the 6th of June 2021. Two hundred (200) mothers of children less than two years of age were included in the study. A pre-structured questionnaire was used to interview mothers and readings were recorded. Demographic variables and mothers’ knowledge and practices of breast feeding were evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 23.<br><strong>Results:</strong> The majority of mothers belonged to the age group 20-30 years, were educated to various<br>grades of schooling, underwent caesarean section, had children less than 1 year of age, and came from families earning less than Pakistan Rupees 20,000 per month. The majority also thought to initiate breastfeeding after one hour of birth, were aware of it to be the first thing offered to neonates after birth, and knew beneficial effects of breastfeeding on maternal health. Though the majority of the mothers practiced prelacteal feed and didn’t exclusively breastfeed their child but practiced awakening their child for feeding if interval exceeded two hours. Most common prelacteal feed was honey, and bottle feeding was the most preferred mode of feeding the infant. Exclusive breastfeeding was found to be significantly associated with the mode of delivery (p=0.044). No statistically significant association was found between exclusive breastfeeding with early initiation of feeding, maternal age, and maternal education.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present study reveals that despite awareness, ‘optimal breastfeeding’ is not prac-<br>ticed adequately in semi-urban areas of Pakistan. Mothers should be timely and properly counseled by healthcare professionals for breastfeeding to reduce morbidity and mortality in fants.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 ANNALS OF ABBASI SHAHEED HOSPITAL AND KARACHI MEDICAL & DENTAL COLLEGE Results of Medicolegal Autopsies Conducted At A Tertiary Care Hospital, Sukkur, Pakistan 2023-02-04T07:51:41+00:00 Abdul Waheed Iqbal Ahmed Khan Abdul Waheed Hari Ram Shahid Nezam Perwez Alam <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To describe the results of medicolegal autopsies conducted at mortuary of Ghulam Muhammad Mahar Medical College, Sukkur, Pakistan during a specific period.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Present study is a retrospective descriptive analysis of medicolegal autopsies conducted in the mortuary from a period of January 2018 to December 2020 after acquiring ethical approval from the hospital. A total of 297 medicolegal autopsies were performed during this specific period. Their significant findings such as gender, age, caste, area of residence, cause &amp; manner of death were collected from Post-mortem registers/records, Inquest papers and Post- mortem reports and entered on SPSS version 22 for analysis. Frequency and percentages were calculated for all categorical variables.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> It was observed that out of 297 medicolegal deaths, maximum number of autopsies conducted were in third decade of life (n=133 cases, 44.78%) followed by 66 (22.22%) in 2<sup>nd</sup> decade of life. Male cases predominated over female cases, which were (n=193, 65%). Majority of the cases were resident of local areas of Sukkur. Mughals were in majority with 79 cases (26.59%) followed by Sheikhs with 62 cases (20.87%), Baloch 44 (14.81%). Maximum number of deaths were due to road traffic accidents (n=103, 34.68%) followed by firearm injuries (n=73, 24.57 %) and asphyxial deaths (n=11, 3.70%). Accidental was the most common manner of death (n=192, 64.64%) followed by homicidal (n=40, 13.46%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is observed that majority of cases were in 3rd decade of life and preponderance of male sex is seen over female sex , could be due to more exposure of males to outer world. Most common cause of death found was road traffic accidents probably due to increased frequency of transportation and decreased regulation of traffic control.</p> 2022-11-30T16:26:17+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 ANNALS OF ABBASI SHAHEED HOSPITAL AND KARACHI MEDICAL & DENTAL COLLEGE Bibliographic Analysis of Pain Research Published in Indexed Journals in Pakistan. A 10-Year Survey 2023-02-04T07:51:18+00:00 Ausaf Ahmed Khan Gauhar Afshan <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study was to identify bibliographic characteristics of pain-related articles published from 2011 to 2020 in indexed journals of Pakistan.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> This retrospective study was conducted after approval from the departmental research committee at the Department of Anaesthesiology from July 2022 to August 2022. A literature search was carried out to identify pain-related articles published between January 2011 and December 2020 in Pakistani journals indexed in the National Library of Medicine (NLM) Catalog. For information on authors and articles, both authors reviewed each journal&amp;#39;s website and its archives. Articles on molecular and animal research were excluded. Data collected by the two authors were compared to check for accuracy, missing data, or other<br>discrepancies. Data was recorded on predesigned Excel  worksheets, and SPSS  version 19 was used for data analysis and reporting.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Our study revealed a steadily rising number of research articles published. The number of publications increased from 7 articles in 2011 to 28 in 2020. The extracted articles represented publications originating from 9 different countries, and out of 138 publications, 109 (78.99%) were identified as original articles. The significant contribution to &amp;quot;pain&amp;quot; research is from the discipline of Anaesthesia, 24.64%. However, research output on &amp;quot;Chronic Pain&amp;quot; was only 12.73% from the discipline of Anaesthesia.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study demonstrated a multispecialty contribution to the area of pain research, with anesthesiology providing a considerable contribution, although the contribution<br>from anaesthesia in chronic pain is fairly modest.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 ANNALS OF ABBASI SHAHEED HOSPITAL AND KARACHI MEDICAL & DENTAL COLLEGE Serum Ace and Ace I/D Polymorphism: Risk of Type 2 Diabetes with and Without Nephropathy in Pakistani Cohort 2023-02-04T07:51:26+00:00 Hiba Bano Mehir un Nisa Iqbal Nazish Iqbal Khan Taseer Ahmed Khan <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To find serum ACE (Angiotensin converting enzyme) level and the role of ACE I/D polymorphism with T2DM (Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus) among the Pakistani cohort.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A total of 110 diagnosed T2DM patients and 100 normotensive healthy controls with an age<br>range of 35-65 years were randomly selected for this study. All cases were screened for the T2DM based on random and fasting blood sugar levels and confirmed by HbA1c test. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples by the Salting out method and ACE I/D polymorphism was genotyped using insertion-deletion polymorphism. A serum level of ACE was also determined. All statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 16 and all values are significant at a p-value less than 0.05. Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) was calculated for any deviation of allele frequencies from predicted. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the association between ACE polymorphism and the risk of diabetes. The odds ratio along with a 95% confidence interval via binary logistics regression analysis was used to find out the diabetic risk associated with ACE genotyping.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The analysis showed higher ACE levels among T2DM patients with nephropathy (mean =158 ± 38.9) and without nephropathy (mean = 128.23 ± 46.8) as compared to controls (mean = 94.4± 28.6). No significant association (÷2 = 7.402, p-value=0.116) was observed between ACE genotyping and T2DM. However, those who have DD (O.R= 2.714, 95% CI=0.943-7.809) genotype of ACE polymorphism was at risk of diabetes but the results were non-significant. However, no risk was present at the diabetic nephropathy females.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> These outcomes propose that the ACE gene may not contribute to T2DM in the Pakistani<br>cohort. However, ACE levels were higher among T2DM with and without nephropathy patients.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 ANNALS OF ABBASI SHAHEED HOSPITAL AND KARACHI MEDICAL & DENTAL COLLEGE Chronic Inflammatory Changes In Esophageal Mucosa of Albino Rats Following Prolonged Intake of Carbonated Drinks. 2023-02-04T07:51:11+00:00 Muhammad Asif Ashhad Mazhar Naila Parveen Sara Farhan Lubna Riaz Riaz Ahmed Shahid <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Background: </strong>Carbonated beverages include soft drinks or sodas which contain carbondioxide and that when ingested for prolonged period of time lowers the intra-esophageal pH and can lead to histopathological changes in the mucosa.</p> <p><strong>Objective: To</strong> study the effects of prolonged intake of carbonated drinks on the oesophagus of albino rats.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> This experimental study was carried out at Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical College for a period of six months. Seventy five rats of wistar strain (gender non specific) were divided into ‘control groups ‘A1 n=10, A2 n=10, A3 n=10 &amp; ‘exposed groups’ B n=15, C n=15 and D n=15.The controls and the exposed animals were fed the same balanced diet, prepared at the lab’s kitchen. The fluid intake of exposed animals was restricted to carbonated drinks only, whereas, the controls were fed water.At the end of the first, third and sixth months, groups A1&amp;B, A2&amp;C and A3&amp;D were sacrificed and histological section of oesophagus were obtained for histomorphological studies.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>On micrometry, width of the oesophagus of the exposed animals for one month;Group B was higher (17.87) than those of Group A1 (5.70). Those rats sacrificed at the end of the third month; Group C had significantly enlarged wall thickness of the oesophagus compared to A2 group. The average oesophageal wall thickness 13.60μm was found to be more in the exposed group ‘D’, as compared to 4.50μm measured in Control Group A3 (p&lt;0.01).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Prolonged consumption of carbonated drinks resulted in gross and histomorphological changes in the esophageal mucosa. The results of this research will help provide awareness to the general public of the adverse effects afflicted by these beverages.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-12-08T06:05:28+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 ANNALS OF ABBASI SHAHEED HOSPITAL AND KARACHI MEDICAL & DENTAL COLLEGE Pictorial Quiz 2023-02-04T07:51:34+00:00 Ameema Javed Syeda Baneen Rizvi 2022-11-30T16:35:59+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 ANNALS OF ABBASI SHAHEED HOSPITAL AND KARACHI MEDICAL & DENTAL COLLEGE