Laparoscopic –Assisted Orchidopaxy in Non-Palpable Testes in Adult Population
Objectives: To present our experience of managing impalpable undescended testes in post-pubertal patients with intention of testicular preservation using laparoscopic assisted orchidopaxy.
Study Design: Descriptive Case series.
Study: Department of Urology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC) Karachi, between Jan 2015 to Dec 2020 with minimal 6 months follow-up.
Methodology: We included all patients with clinically impalpable testes with aged 12 and above. All patients had ultrasound abdomen performed as initial screening test followed by laparoscopic assessment and definite procedure. Patients with normal or hypo-plastic testes were underwent single staged orchidopaxy, while patients with testicular atrophy were planned for orchiectomy. Intraoperative testicular biopsy and Semen analysis were not routinely performed in our study.
Results: Total 36 patients with 41 impalpable testes underwent laparoscopic localization and management. Mean age of patients was 20.75+ 5.98 years. 50% of testes were on the right side, 36.1% on left sided while 3.88% were bilateral. 5 (12.1%) patients had clinical inguinal hernia.. Diagnostic yield of ultrasound was (75.6%) and 100 % in laparoscopy. 33 testis were true intra-abdominal while 4 were inguinal and 4 were vanishing testes Normal looking testes were observed in 24 testes (64.86%) followed by hypoplastic in 11(29.72%) while 2 testes (5.40%) were atrophic. Two intra-operative complications included urinary bladder injury and vas deferens injury in one patient each. Postoperatively testicular ischemic necrosis in one (2.4%) and wound infection in 2 (4.8%) patients were noted. Late follow up revealed one port site hernia (2.4%) and one testicular atrophy (2.4%). Success rate of orchidopaxy in our study was 94.6%.
Conclusions: Laparoscopic has been proved as excellent diagnostic and therapeutic tool for the management of intra- abdominal undescended testes in adolescent and post-pubertal patients.
Key words: Impalpable testes, Laparoscopic-assisted orchidopaxy, Adolescent, Adult